The hazards were identified from thirty-five (35) EcoSan latrines (13 FAs and 22 UDDTs) which were sampled after 12 months waiting period after the pits were sealed to determine the presence of hazards in the EcoSan sludge.
In total, 35 latrines were sampled comprising 13 FAs and 22 UDDTs. The hazards targeted and identified included Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Taenia, E.
The average concentration of viable Ascaris lumbricoides was 0.40 and 0.39 potentially viable eggs per gram of sludge from FAs (n = 13) and UDDTs (n = 22), respectively (Table 1).
The estimated doses of sludge ingested and inhaled and through dermal contact per person per year for FAs and UDDTs are shown in Table 2.
Each man was estimated to be exposed to an average of 21.2 g and 12.8 g of EcoSan sludge from FAs and UDDTs, respectively, in a year (Table 2).
Table 6 presents the health risks as a result of exposure to EcoSan sludge from FAs and UDDTs from rural and periurban areas, respectively.
The colony forming units for Salmonella were higher for UDDTs than for FAs (509.1 versus 346.2 CFUs, p = 0.35) while that for E.