In Indian context, QC implementation process and activities in different organizations (Dwivedi, 1987; 1987a; Jha, 1997; Mathew, 1985; Srinivasan, 1991; Udpa
, 1985) and QCs' effectiveness evaluation in industrial settings (Dwivedi, 1987b; Khan, 1986; Vijaya Banu, 2007) were studied.
Udpa (11) defines the seven steps in ABC application in hospital management, which focuses more on practical application procedure of the system than on the system structure:
Udpa's study results showed the several important characteristics of ABC application in healthcare institutions (11):
(1995) notes, "There are numerous challenges in implementing an ABC system in hospitals".
In 1988, Congress amended the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (UDPA
) to require states receiving federal funds to assure equitable treatment on the basis, inter alia, of race and to assess the sources of over-representation of minorities in juvenile detention facilities and institutions.
, S.R., Quality Circles in India, Tata McGraw-Hill, India, 1986.
(BHEL) implemented the first successful QC programme in 1981 in its Ramchandrapuram unit (Udpa
The value assigned to the term RATI[O.sub.vj] might be based on the time required to perform the activities or functions that are precipitated by the volume and mix of patient care or the number of personnel who provide direct patient care (Chan 1993; Udpa
1996; Canby 1995).
, S.R., Quality Circles in India, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, India, 1986.
, "Regularized integral equations and curvilinear boundary elements for electromagnetic wave scattering in three dimensions," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol.