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In addition, Catania pointed out that the terms unconditioned and conditioned, in the context of UEO and CEO, are overly restrictive, because "conditioned" does not encompass all learned behaviors.
Three types of CEOs have been described: a surrogate CEO, which involves correlating a stimulus with a UEO; a reflexive CEO, which involves correlating a stimulus with worsening or improvement; and a transitive CEO, which involves conditional conditioned reinforcement and punishment.
Surrogate CEOs are established when a neutral event is paired with or systematically precedes a UEO or a CEO.
(2) Organizational buyers are more likely to give UEOs when they encounter products that are unique to their home markets.
(3) The more unique is a product, the more likely its producer will receive UEOs.
(5) Importing organizations are more likely to give UEOs when sourcing from LDCs rather than from industrial countries.
(6) Companies at the beginning stage of the internationalization process with limited overseas connections, are more likely to give UEOs; whereas those with a long history of international presence and well-established networks are more likely to take a systematic vendor search approach.
(7) Companies are more likely to give UEOs in their initial entry into a sourcing country; later vendor search and selection are more likely to follow the rational models.
In the seven studies reviewed by Bilkey, the percentage of firms that started their exportation with UEOs ranged between 40-83 per cent.
For example, the percentage of firms that export on the basis of UEOs was:
Although the phenomenon of UEOs has been well documented in empirical studies, it has received literally no theoretical attention because it is commonly perceived as a "random" phenomenon and, therefore, is unworthy of serious research.
UEOs in the organizational buying behaviour literature
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