In Montreal RAFA (Rally of Haitian Women) was created in 1973 and transformed in 1979 into Neges Vanyan (Valiant Women) and in New York UFAP (Union of Patriotic Haitian Women).
In New York, the trajectory of UFAP was similar.(56) Indeed, the political leftist organization from which UFAP emerged was organized by dissident members of the Haitian Communist party.
In contrast to UFAP and RAFA/Neges Vanyan, the Canadian Point de Ralliement (Rallying Force) emerged by separating itself from the male-centered patriotic and anti-Duvalierist movement.
Following the creation of UFAP and Point de Ralliement and the 1975 United Nations Resolution on Women, many other Haitian women's groups were formed in the United States, Canada, and Europe.