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The exposure effects of high-dose ufCB and low-dose [Fe.sub.2][(SO.sub.4).sub.3] or [NiSO.sub.4] were used to generate two virtual series by temporal summation of means and variances of the data from every 6 hr.
The GEE model-estimated exposure effects of ufCB, [Fe.sub.2][(SO.sub.4).sub.3], and [NiSO.sub.4] are shown in Figure 3.
Compared with the expected combined effects, the real combined effects of ufCB and [Fe.sub.2][(SO.sub.4).sub.3] tend to demonstrate milder changes in all three parameters during the 36 hr after exposure.
Dose responses to ufCB. Effects of high-dose ufCB were not obviously different from those of low-dose ufCB.
Interactions between ufCB and/or [Fe.sub.2][(SO.sub.4).sub.3] or [NiSO.sub.4].
Interactions between ufCB and Fe were also verified on pulmonary inflammation and ROS production (Wilson et al.
Particle preparation, ufCB (Printex 90; diameter, 14 nm; surface area, 253.9 [m.sup.2]/g; Degussa, Frankfurt, Germany) was weighed, ground, and suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4).
At the age of 5 weeks and weight 25-30 g, the mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection with 1.25% citosol (Kyorin Pharmaceuticals, Tokyo, Japan) and instilled with an intratracheal application with 100 [micro]L ufCB (200 [micro]g/100 [micro]L/mouse) or LPS (1 [micro]g/[micro]L, 100 [micro]g/100 [micro]L/mouse; Sigma, St.
To further study the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC; a glutathione precursor and antioxidant) on ufCB-induced productions of VEGF and total proteins, mice were injected with NAC (320 mg/kg) intraperitoneally 2 hr before ufCB instillation.
The cells were then treated for 4 hr with 100 [micro]g/mL ufCB or culture medium, with or without 20 mM NAC pretreatment for 1 hr.
Cells (7 x [10.sup.5]) adhering to the culture dish were treated for 4 hr with 100 [micro]g/mL ufCB or culture medium, with or without 20 mM NAC pretreatment for 1 hr.
THP-1 and A549 cells (7 x 105) were treated for 4 hr with 100 [micro]g/mL ufCB in serum-free culture media, with or without 20 mM NAC pretreatment for 1 hr.
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