UFLSUnder-Frequency Load Shedding
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12 fuel blends were prepared for UFL combustion testing as shown in Table 2.
Measured vapour pressure (DVPE) values of the blends were instrumental in selecting the initial temperatures at which the UFL tests were performed, as there is a strong correlation between vapour pressure and flammability.
The UFL of the vapour space above the blends was measured using the apparatus and procedure described by Gardiner et al [25.26.27], Constant volume combustion chambers that are partially filled with fuel were refrigerated in an environmental test chamber.
When relatively volatile fuels are tested (fuels with UFL temperatures below 0[degrees]C).
making it possible to resolve differences in UFL temperatures between fuel samples of as little as 0.5[degrees]C.
Table 4 shows the test matrix executed to determine UFL temperature for Blend 3.
To issue more UFL, the firm would be required in time to issue additional long-term (at-risk) debt.
Section 3 presents evidence that UFL holders at failing banks are prone to run and that those runs add to the cost of resolving those failures.
To be clear, we are not saying that reliance on UFL is the only feature that makes bank failures costly.
Second, UFL are runnable, which can lead to fire sales of assets that not only destroy value at the failing institution, but can also have spillover costs on other institutions with similar asset holdings.
In general, UFL increases with BHC size, primarily because of increasing reliance on uninsured deposits.
To test the hypothesis that UFL holders are prone to run when a bank is in distress, we turned to the FDIC database on failed banks.