Unhealthy eating habits of male patients may also contribute UGIH aetiology.
A study reported that 17% subjects with UGIH were using NSAIDs, 7% anticoagulants, 8.5% salicylate, and 1% clopidogrel.
We conclude that cultural influences on smoking and alcohol usage, especially aspirin, NSAID, anticoagulant and anti-platelet medications, affect the ratio of UGIH in different patient populations.
In addition to primary liver and kidney diseases, other comorbidities also increase the risk for UGIH.5,6 A study reported a rate of 4% for chronic kidney disease and 10% for liver disease,12 while another study reported rates of 3.4% and 21%, respectively.14 The latter study also reported a malignancy rate of 8.4%.
Previous studies have reported that the most common cause of UGIH is peptic ulcer disease.14,17,18 A Turkish study indicated that mostly duodenal (52%) and gastric ulcers (29%) were encountered.19 Widespread NSAIDs use due to a high prevalence of coronary artery disease and rheumatological diseases in Turkey may be the basis of peptic ulcers as an aetiological factor.
As far as we know, no study has yet compared the effect of RDW levels on UGIH. Several studies have identified RDW as an indicator of morbidity and mortality in acute coronary syndrome.
Increased stress leads to neurohormonal activity and affects RDW levels.21 In our study we found that RDW levels are increased in UGIH patients.
Age is an independent risk factor for mortality in UGIH patients.14,21,25,26 A study reported age as the only risk factor for mortality among gender, smoking, NSAID, and anticoagulant usage.27 We conclude that altered physiological functions by age and intolerance to hypovolaemia may be the cause of higher mortality in older population.