UMZIUnbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Copyright 1988-2018, All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Based on fieldwork conducted over more than twenty-five years in the agriculturally active Shixini area of Willowvale District in the former Transkei, McAllister (1980: 211; 2001: 183) argued that ancestor rituals were based on clan and kinship ties, with significant elements played out in the cattle enclosure (widely referred to as the 'kraal') of each homestead (umzi; plural imizi).
For village-based homesteads, there are therefore powerful economic, cultural and social reasons for seeking to keep town-based household and lineage members involved in the affairs of the rural umzi.
The Xhosa umzi is, first and foremost, the (residential) site on which the rituals of an agnatically bounded group of patrilineally related kin are conducted, always under the watchful eye of a male homestead head and his agnatic elders.
Whilst town-based umzi members are not reluctant participants in village-centred ritual practice, there are differences in their levels of engagement: the unmarried or separated 'daughters' of village homesteads identify most strongly with their rural umzi and value highly their association with their home village.
This response is given by the most senior man present who is not related to the host umzi.
This 'noise' is an indication of the status of the host umzi and shows the ancestors that the host homestead is respected and being 'built' by the entire village.
The village is where their ancestors are believed to reside, specifically in the kraal of their home umzi, and this is where their cultural roots are.