Both the Vice Presidents - Professors Bernheim (Switzerland) and Sorensen (Denmark) - are doctors, one a psychiatrist with extensive experience of prison medicine, the other a surgeon, a member of the UNCAT
and an active worker for an internationally recognized treatment centre for torture victims.
Lebanon ratified UNCAT in 2000 but has yet to fully implement it.
In a separate conversation, a United Nations source said that the extradition seemed to be in violation of UNCAT.
Anti-torture groups rely on Article 1 in the UNCAT
for defining torture, rather than the national provision of the law, because depending on the convention has led to expanding the boundaries of the definition to include any ill-treatment inflicted by law enforcement officials to civilians and not only suspects.
None of the treaty bodies (yet) assert that establishing rights of non-refoulement (or to stay in the territory) are more than optional, except in the most extreme cases that raise Article 7 ICCPR non-return obligations (or under Article 3 of the UNCAT or relevant regional human rights treaties).
As pointed out in the body of this article, the torture or ill-treatment provisions of the ICCPR (or the UNCAT in relation to torture) prevent return to a serious risk of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, which could arguably include future trafficking, reprisals from trafficking rings, victimization, community, family or social exclusion, or other forms of violence.
Over the last few years a group of stakeholders -- state and nonstate actors -- led by MP Ghassan Moukheiber, has drafted, revised and discussed a bill that would modify the definition and prosecution of torture, thereby aligning Lebanese law with international definitions set out by the UNCAT.
There are many novelties to the law; we have modified it to include very explicitly the definition of the UNCAT, which is a very extensive and complete definition of torture which does include psychological pain," Moukheiber said.
The Prime Minister highlighted aspects of the Constitution that specifically banned torture or any other form of cruelty and said that in addition to this, Fiji would also soon formally ratify the United Nations Convention Against Torture or UNCAT.
It is currently with the relevant parliamentary committee for scrutiny (and) in the hearings before our Parliament, the Fiji Military Forces and the Fiji Police have both publically committed themselves to the implementation of UNCAT , the PM said.
The experts would also share with the participants the definition of torture as narrated by UNCAT
, besides differentiating the same from violence and methods of torture as well as the effects of torture.
One of the conditions of the UNCAT
was the need for each state to create a National Prevention Mechanism to monitor and prevent torture, according to George Ghali, project assistant on the torture prevention program at Alef, who helped author the NGO's alternative report.