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THE THIRD group, UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola), was formed in 1966 in Zambia.
The negotiations to peacefully resolve the impasse broke down on 31 October 1992 when government troops and the Rapid Intervention Police (known as the Ninjas) staged a brutal crackdown on the UNITA leadership, and the MPLA's Jovem Justiceiros carried out what is now popularly called the "Halloween Massacre" of UNITA supporters in Luanda.
MPLA had control over the oil, UNITA over the diamonds.
Crucial information supplied by US intelligence revealed the locations of UNITA troops to him, enabling him to anticipate their movements.
In 1990, UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi officially recognized Jose Eduardo dos Santos, the MPLA leader, as Angola's head of state.
The structure of political authority in Angola is such that, despite the notional place of UNITA in the National Assembly and other administrative bodies, authority lies firmly in the hands of the MPLA.
UNITA rebels in Angola have claimed responsibility for shooting down a chartered aircraft that crashed on 1 November killing all 48 people on board.
Without them UNITA wouldn't be able to maintain its options.
Increased attacks by UNITA have caused the government to sell more drilling licenses in order to pay for the ongoing civil war.
However, UNITA contested the results and the civil war continued, ending only after the death of UNITA's leader Jonas Savimbi in 2002.
Cut off from the rest of the country and locked in a desperate battle for survival, Huambo descended into anarchy with MPLA government troops facing off on one side and Jonas Savimbi's rebel UNITA movement taking aim on the other.
However, MPLA's arch-foe UNITA contested the results and the country returned to civil war.
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- Unit Ventilator
- Unit Ventilator
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