sought to relieve the starving and to avoid entanglement in the political problems of Somalia,(118) UNOSOM II intended to participate in a broader range of activities.
Their staff consisted only of that assembled hastily for them by UNITAF
from its component units which would stay for UNOSOM II and they received only weak support from the inexperienced, undermanned, and overworked UN Secretariat staff.
These include the American-dominated military involvement in Haiti, the UNITAF
period of the international community's efforts in Somalia, and the operations carried out by the NATO Implementation Force and Stabilization Force.
The MNF in Haiti and UNITAF
in Somalia had Chapter VII enforcement authority from the outset, which explicitly authorized them to use force, not merely in self-defense, but as needed to achieve their objectives.
, which was led by CENTCOM and included forces from 24 other
Bush under UNITAF
, which was led by CENTCOM and included forces
troops was significantly reduced under President Clinton as operational responsibility was shifted from UNITAF
to UNOSOM II.
Security Council authorized the Unified Task Force (UNITAF
) to "use all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia." (108) A series of early failures, however, led to the withdrawal of UNITAF
in May 1993.
Unified Task Force (UNITAF
) and Operation Restore Hope, operations to secure delivery of humanitarian aid to Somalian refugees in response to famine and civil war in 1992-1993, was led primarily by the U.S.
After arrival of peacekeeping troops from 24 other countries, the mission was renamed as UN International Task Force (UNITAF
) and eventually to UNOSOM II.
a U.S.-led United Nations Unified Task Force (UNITAF
A third credible presence safe area was created in Somalia in 1992, when Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali asked UNHCR to create "an operation to deliver food and seeds from Kenya to a preventive zone on the Somali side of the border." (56) UNHCR established a cross-border operation to provide these preventive zones within Somalia along the Kenya border, supported by peacekeepers from the Unified Task Force (UNITAF
) and the follow-on peacekeeping mission, the UN Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II).