Parallel to the increase in UPF consumption, obesity rates worldwide have also increased, particularly in middle-income countries (5,27) possibly due to the unfavorable nutritional profile of UPFs, since they have 2.5 times more energy, twice as much free sugar, 1.5 times more fats in general and eight times more trans fats, as well as three times less fiber, two times less protein and 2.5 times less potassium (26).
Thus, inadequate feeding in the first years of life may be one of the determinants of the growth of childhood obesity and chronic diseases in adult life, since the consumption of these UPFs has a negative impact on health in the first years of life.
Due to the accounting statements low disclosure index by the entities that make up the universe of this research, it is necessary to define the target population, which, in this case, is the total of the entities qualified as Civil Society Organizations of Public Interest (OSCIP) and Federal Public Utility (UPF
), which amounted to 18,553 Brazilian institutions in October 2013.
Um estudo de caso foi realizado entre os meses de novembro de 2011 e outubro de 2012, envolvendo quatro unidades de producao familiar (UPF
) inseridas na atividade leiteira, no municipio de Guaraciaba, extremo oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina (entre 26[degrees] 36'S 53[degrees] 34'W).
In order to have a more general review on the effect of fabric weight on UPF
in terms of knitted structure, the relationship between mean fabric weights and mean UPFs
of all yarn types in terms of knitted structures was also investigated.
(3) Wash tests: The fabrics are washed five and 10 times with different laundry products; test conditions are chosen according to the test protocol of the Skin Cancer Foundation's "Seal of Recommendation for UV Fabric Treatments via the Laundry Process." (4) Stability tests: The fabrics are washed once with different UV-absorber levels, and the durability against sweat is determined by comparing the UPF
before and after rinsing the fabric with a 0.8% NaCl solution.
A mapping of these allocations into utility space generates utility production frontiers (UPF
) associated with property rights A and B (Panel 2.b).
Before any treatment, white T-shirts had a UPF
of about 5.
In a cohort study published in JAMA Internal Medicine in February 2019 that analyzed data from roughly 45,000 French adults 45 years of age or older, researchers found that a 10-percent increase in ultra-processed food (UPF
) consumption was associated with a 14-percent higher risk of death from all causes.
Although sunscreens are classified for their photoprotective effects by sun protection factors (SPF), which primarily represent protection against UVB, photoprotective clothing is classified for its sun protective effects by UV protection factors (UPF
), which represent protection against both UVA and UVB (Table 2).
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) established a ranking and labeling system for manufacturers to use if their apparel products pass certain Ultraviolet Protective Factor (UPF
) testing standards (American Society for Testing and Materials, 2003).
But for certified protection, consider buying clothing with a high Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF