UPIGAUnion Printcraft International Golf Association
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In 1995 and 1996, respectively, pollinator exclusion experiments indicated that 75 and 90% of fruit set resulted from nocturnal pollination by Upiga virescens; the remaining 10-25% resulted from pollination by diurnal co-pollinators (Fleming and Holland 1998).
Of 589 flowers containing eggs, 67% set fruit and 21% of fruit abscised due to larvae, providing the cactus with a 4.8 benefit-to-cost ratio for interacting with Upiga virescens.
Benefit-to-cost ratio for Lophocereus schottii interacting with senita moths was 4.8 ([approximately]21% of fruit destroyed by larvae), and is consistent with the fact that 21% of areoles contained a larval gallery (Table 2) and that only 20% of Upiga virescens survive to day six [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED].