UPREUnfolded Protein Response Element
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It was initially assumed that UPRE was located in the promoter of ERAD genes such as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase synoviolin (HRD1) and ER degradation enhancing alphamannosidase-like protein 1 (EDEM1) [15,16].
According to a recent study, the human citrate carrier (CiC) gene contains UPRE [19].
ERSE, ERSE-II, UPRE, and UPRE-II have been identified to date [15,17], and our result shows that horse ER stress-related genes contain conserved ERSE, ERSE-II, UPRE, and UPRE-II sequences (Figure 4A).
Considering that physiologically accurate concentrations of ATF6[alpha] could not induce UPRE, UPRE is likely solely regulated by the IRE1[alpha]-XBP1 pathway [16].
During this period, in parallel, I extensively characterized the 22 bp UPRE by constructing and analyzing 22 single point mutants.
As this kind of cis-acting element analysis immediately gave me a UPRE mutant with much weaker transcriptional activity than wild-type UPRE, I thought of and indeed conducted multicopy suppressor screening with this UPRE mutant, because I thought that only overexpression of the trans-acting factor would suppress the weak activity of the cis-acting element.
Under this scenario, if the UPRE is placed upstream of the reporter gene instead of the GAL4-binding site used for two-hybrid screening, then my factor, fused to the GAL4 activation domain (one hybrid), would constitutively enhance transcription of the reporter gene (Fig.
So, I published my paper of Hac1p with characterization of the UPRE in 1996, (21) and then Tetsushi Kawahara and I worked hard to obtain the data required for submission of the splicing paper to 'Cell'.
For the CT example, the reconstruction given by the DP and UPRE stopping rules are given on the left and middle, respectively, in Figure 3.2.
Before continuing, we note that GCV and UPRE depend, through iteration (2.8), upon the particular randomly drawn vector v.
On the right is a plot of the relative error with the stopping iterations for DP, GCV, and UPRE labeled.
Dr Dacheux works in the UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation unit at the Institut Pasteur in Paris and at the National Reference Centre for Rabies in Paris.