Cette disposition a rapidement trouve son expression concrete dans la creation de partis politiques concurrents de l'Uprona
dont le plus important est le Frodebu.
The roadblock had a notable history across ten years of political disturbance, as nationalist rebels at the end of Belgian rule had thrown up roadblocks in the north in 1961 to prevent their political rivals from travelling to colonial centres, and to sort through the population and test them for political loyalty to Uprona
, the party of independence; those who failed the test were beaten to correct their political sentiment, a largely non-lethal violence they described as uguhanura, 'advice' (Russell 2013: 87-147; cf.
Two political parties emerged: the Union for National Progress (UPRONA
), a multi-ethnic party led by Tutsi Prince Louis Rwagasore and the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) supported by Belgium.
Une fois arrivee au parlement, j'ai rejoint l'Unite pour le Progres National (UPRONA
), un parti politique dont je sentais qu'il repondait le mieux a mes aspirations.
(Union for National Progress) traditional Tutsi party, formerly with strong links to the army, leader is Jean-Baptiste Manwangari
In July 1998, seventeen factions, including the government, Frodebu (Hutu-dominated political party), and Uprona
(Tutsi-dominated political party) all signed a cease-fire agreement.
The military government that emerged proclaimed the Tutsi-dominated Unity for National Progress (UPRONA
) the only legal political party.
Other groups, including the UPRONA
faction led by Charles Mukasi, and ProfVenant Bamboneheyo's AC-Genocide Association accuse most of the 150 exiled Hutu leaders who started returning home in late October, of involvement in the 1993 killing of over 50,000 Tutsis.
For instance, the former ruling Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU), which was toppled by Buyoya on July 25 1996 - three years after it won the country's first democratic elections - is pro-Nyerere while the Union for National Progress (UPRONA
), the main opposition until its alliance with FRODEBU in 1994, believes otherwise.
Abdoul, born a Muslim, used to be a paid propagandist for UPRONA
, the predominantly Tutsi political party that has held power since independence.
Political parties: Multi-party system consisting of 21 registered political parties, of which CNDD (the National Council for the Defense of Democracy, Hutu), FRODEBU (the Front for Democracy in Burundi, predominantly Hutu with some Tutsi membership), and UPRONA
(the National Unity and Progress Party, predominantly Tutsi with some Hutu membership) are national, mainstream parties.