UPSIDUCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database
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We conclude that only subhypothesis 2a is borne out, which means that in the data from the UPSID sample affricates typically pattern with stops with respect to their segmental modification types.
This finding means that in the UPSID sample (a) the laryngeal MOD types are prevalent, and (b) as far as the patterning of MOD types in the three classes of obstruents is concerned, phonation, secondary articulation and (pre)nasalization are essentially different.
Again, we should of course bear in mind that in the UPSID sample of languages there are six different laryngeal types of MOD, against four different oral types of MOD and only one nasal type (prenasalization).
The data from the languages in the UPSID sample made it possible to test both ideas in a refined way.
To give a few examples: the UPSID sample contains seven languages with breathy voiced consonants.
This is not the case for the UPSID sample of languages described in Maddieson (1984), which is a quota sample.
The UPSID sample contains only 26 instances of MOD on fricatives as against 160 on stops (cf.
Of the 19 Australian languages in the UPSID sample only two have affricates.