UPSIDUCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database
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The results of our evaluation of this hypothesis for all relevant individual languages in the UPSID sample were aggregated and analyzed quantitatively.
We can therefore safely conclude that hypothesis 1 is borne out for the data for the UPSID sample.
Remarkably, five out of the seven types of MOD which usually comply with the first hypothesis fall under the laryngeal node, whereas all three types of MOD whose patterning contradicts the hypothesis for the most part fall under the oral node; as (4a) shows, the UPSID sample contains no more than four oral MOD types.
As we pointed out already, there are relatively few languages with MOD on fricatives: the UPSID sample contains only 23 such languages.
In testing hypothesis 2, we obviously selected only those languages in the UPSID sample which have affricates.
As we pointed out in section 2.1, the UPSID sample includes two click languages.
In all, about one third of the languages in the UPSID sample lack affricates.
We conclude that only subhypothesis 2a is borne out, which means that in the data from the UPSID sample affricates typically pattern with stops with respect to their segmental modification types.
This finding means that in the UPSID sample (a) the laryngeal MOD types are prevalent, and (b) as far as the patterning of MOD types in the three classes of obstruents is concerned, phonation, secondary articulation and (pre)nasalization are essentially different.
Again, we should of course bear in mind that in the UPSID sample of languages there are six different laryngeal types of MOD, against four different oral types of MOD and only one nasal type (prenasalization).
The data from the languages in the UPSID sample made it possible to test both ideas in a refined way.
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