USCOPUnited States Commission on Ocean Policy
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(49) On the issue of ocean governance, the USCOP Report found that past and current attempts to coordinate ocean management within some particular areas had been helpful, but the efforts inadequately dealt with a broad and diverse range of ocean responsibilities.
The USCOP Report envisions a much less structured and evolving system of regional ocean councils than the Pew Report.
(4.) USCOP REPORT, supra note 1, at 32; PEW REPORT, supra note 1, at 41-44.
(13.) USCOP REPORT, supra note 1, at 52-55; PEW REPORT, supra note 1, at 26-28.
In making these recommendations, the USCOP clearly recognized that many of the problems facing ocean resources are institutional in their cause and are compounded by problems of the mismatch between private incentives and social goals.
Implementing the USCOP's recommended regional governance structures will require new laws, policies, and institutions for ecosystem-based management.
In an attempt to use an ecosystem-based approach to achieve goals of resource protection for ecologically sustainable human use and improved resource management, California has been actively implementing recommendations from the Pew and USCOP reports.
(36) The Council has been working to update the 1997 California inventory of ocean and coastal laws in preparation of the California Ocean Resources Management plan, similar to the effort by USCOP to inventory federal laws.
While existing examples of regional management of oceans and coasts have in many cases improved the status quo, not all of them reflect the notion of ROG as envisioned by the USCOP or Pew.
Section II discusses and compares the rationale and definitions of ROG from Pew and USCOP to illustrate the basis and complexities driving the need for a regional approach to ocean management.
(19) In its July 2004 final report, An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century, the USCOP recognized the necessity of managing marine and coastal resources in a more holistic manner and acknowledged the many logistical challenges to doing so.
The USCOP recognized that the laws governing oceans and coasts are fragmented, overlapping, and confusing, and recommended the establishment of an overarching national ocean policy to guide the actions of federal agencies.