USDESUnder Secretary of Defense, Emergency Services
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The Swedish version (SWE-DES-23) (Leksell et al., 2007) of the American Diabetes Empowerment Scale (USDES) (Anderson, Funnell, Fitzgerald, & Marrero, 2000) contains 23 statements concerning the following four subscales of empowerment: identification of problems and problem-solving (10 items), self-awareness (4 items), stress management (4 items), and willingness to change (5 items).