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To examine the impact of profit shifting on the measurement of official statistics, the researchers employ Bureau of Economic Analysis data on MNEs from 1982-2014 to reattribute earnings on USDIA. They use labor compensation and sales to unaffiliated parties as proxies for the "true" location of economic activity.
Brazil accounts for over 70% of USDIA in Mercosur countries.
(9) On a historical cost basis, the USDIA position in 2003 totaled $1,788.9 billion (with the 2002 total following in parentheses) ($1,601.4 billion), an increase of 11.7 percent over 2002.
By industry, the USDIA position was highest in the "other industries" grouping, $693.1 billion ($630.5 billion in 2002); followed by manufacturing, $378.0 billion ($339.4 billion); finance except depository institutions and insurance, $299.8 billion ($264.7 billion); wholesale trade, $140.6 billion ($124.7 billion); mining, $98.7 billion ($86.6 billion); depository institutions, $63.7 billion ($56.6 billion); information, $47.5 billion ($39.8 billion); professional, scientific, and technical services, $40.6 billion ($34.9 billion); and utilities, $26.9 billion ($24.3 billion).
Cooke (1997), using the same index, also finds a reduction in this type of risk to be positively related to USDIA.
Table 2: Data Definitions Variable Identifier Scaled USDIA (%) USDIA Hiring/Firing HIREFIRE Regulation Index (Scaled 1-10) Wage ($/hour) WAGE Political Risk Index POLRISK (Scaled 1-25) Exchange Rate XRATE Variability (%) Growth in RGDP (%) GDPGRO Interest Rate (%) INTRATE (for all but Brazil and Turkey) Interest Rate (%) (Brazil and Turkey) Trade Restrictions TRADE Index (Scaled 1-10) Corporate Tax Rate (%) CORPTAX Variable Definition Scaled USDIA (%) Investment position abroad on a historical-cost basis for 8 manufacturing industries and wholesale trade (1999) divided by the 1999 RGDP in the destination country.
The USDIA international transactions data are reported quarterly.
affiliates of foreign MNCs, while the USDIA survey provides comparable information on the domestic activities of parents of U.S.
These items have been included on the follow-on annual surveys of FDIUS and were introduced on the surveys of USDIA beginning with the 2004 benchmark survey.
The much slower growth in the USDIA position was almost entirely the result of a shift from U.S.
international investment position F.2 USDIA: Selected items F.3 Selected financial and operating data of foreign affiliates of U.S.
direct investment abroad (USDIA), which is currently being processed.
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