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For a typical IOP, the UWKA took off 30 min before the seeding aircraft in order to conduct at least one full flight leg parallel to the mean flight level wind prior to the onset of seeding with the seeding aircraft (Figs.
The UWKA flight tracks were designed to intersect the Packer John DOW site while flying parallel to the prevailing wind direction.
At least one rawinsonde was launched 2-4 h prior to launching the U WKA, and the data were used to determine whether to continue with a planned IOP Once the UWKA was airborne, rawinsondes were launched regularly every 1-2 h, rotating through the three rawinsonde sites to sample across the region of interest.
A visual perspective of the Pioneer fire is provided by a photograph taken from the UWKA during the flight on 29 August (Fig.
(a) Topographic map of domain where the UWKA sampled the Pioneer fire.
In situ observations from the UWKA during a flight leg at 4.9 km MSL spanning the period 2243:402246:40 UTC 29 Aug and tracking from northeast to southwest (Fig.
It was sampled by FP4 and the UWKA. The latter documented its transition from an elevated density current to a bore (Fig.
Transect of a bore encountered by the UWKA on 20 Jun.
During several LLAP IOPs, the UWKA flew over the orographic transect, further enhancing data collection for investigations of orographic influences.
UWKA cloud radar observations collected during a strong LLAP band period reveal a transition from vigorous updrafts and downdrafts near the coast to stratiform ascent with shallow near-surface boundary layer turbulence over the western slope of Tug Hill.
Airborne radar observations made with the Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR), a 95-GHz dual-channel Doppler radar on board the UWKA, provided high-resolution context for the clouds being sampled.
Near the end of each flight, the BAe 146 penetrated clouds near their maximum tops (-10[degrees] to -15[degrees]C or colder, depending on the day), while the UWKA flew above cloud top observing the clouds with its downward-pointing cloud radar and lidar.
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