While unbundled local loops
and resale have been stagnating recently, UNE-P has been taking off.
In Poland, it will investigate a possible refusal to give access to bitstream and to the unbundled local loop
, and other possible types of non-price conduct related to the purchase of wholesale broadband access services that may restrict the ability of operators to effectively compete with the incumbent.
Copaco has a near-monopoly in the ADSL market, given that there is little regulatory provision for unbundled local loops
and other access mechanisms.
benchmarking methodology for setting prices for unbundled local loops
18) European Commission (2004a) reports an increase of 110% in unbundled local loops
(fully unbundled and shared lines) from 1.
David Edmonds, director general at Oftel, said: "In February, Oftel ordered BT to provide operators guaranteed levels of service for the provision of unbundled local loops
The first trials of unbundled local loops
providing DSL services are now operational and after much hard work by the industry, BT and Oftel, more unbundled loops will be available.
Among the reasons for the lack of deployment: WLL for cable relief is not attractive in urban environments except in unusual situations; it is not cost-effective for CLECs if unbundled local loops
are available; regulatory issues are not permitting new carriers to obtain service subsidy; little or no spectrum is dedicated to WLL around the world; and incumbent carriers prefer fiber or copper loops.