The team concluded that restoration of still-standing structures is a massive task requiring seismic retrofit intervention to strengthen unreinforced masonry
walls and tie various elements of the structure together - walls and floors.
General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry
Following an initial chapter on the basic structural behavior and design of low-rise, bearing wall buildings and the materials used in masonry construction, the text offers a clear, systematic discussion of strength and allowable-stress design of reinforced and unreinforced masonry
elements, comparisons of these types of design, and discussion of lateral load analysis of shear-wall structures.
Even though the earthquake hazard is considered moderate, experts view New York's risk to be relatively high due to densely populated areas and an abundance of older unreinforced masonry
, typically brick structures, which are particularly prone to earthquake damage.
The way you upgrade an unreinforced masonry
or brick building is going to be very different from the way you upgrade a reinforced concrete building, and that will be different from the way you will upgrade a wood or steel building.
A simplified micro-model for the study of fracture in unreinforced masonry
was formulated by Chaimoon & Attard (2007).
They shook their heads at structures slapped together out of unreinforced masonry
This paper discusses the vulnerability functions developed for residential buildings, which are largely unreinforced masonry
The historic structure, sometimes called the Acorn Building, was made of wood and unreinforced masonry
, a type of construction no longer allowed under modern building codes.
Engineers evaluate unreinforced masonry
buildings, bridges, roadways, with nondestructive testing to determine vulnerability and wall solidity and plan subsequent strengthening and retrofitting.
a rational approach for reinforced and unreinforced masonry
based on the working stress design theory;