The socioeconomic situation in Villa Itati and Villa Azul is critical it is estimated that 83 percent of the population has unsatisfied basic needs
and the unemployment rate is around 14 percent (almost double the AMBA average).
Salta has a low GDP per capita and a higher than average percentage of population with unsatisfied basic needs
: 23.7% versus the national average of 12.5%.
To identify deprived GAs, we used national census data on unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) (21) of the same period (1992-2001), for the 25 departments in Argentina where the 39 ECLAMC participating maternity hospitals are located, represented by their geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude).
Two poverty indicators were used in this study: 1) a national population index of unsatisfied basic needs (UBN), to evaluate adverse social conditions in Argentina related to maternal residence, and 2) socioeconomic status (SES), to assess poverty at an individual level.
At the first stage, participating districts were selected on the basis of the five criterions: (i) exposure to violence during Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) guerilla activity; (ii) poverty level, measured as a proportion of population with unsatisfied basic needs
; (iii) poverty gap; (iv) level of child malnutrition; and (v) presence of extreme income poverty.
Second, these results also apply when using measures of non-monetary deprivation, like unsatisfied basic needs
According to the indicator of unsatisfied basic needs
(UBN), it was found that 43.6% of the homes of the minors were poor and among these, 12.8% were under conditions of misery.
NES scale, used in other studies in Argentina (for example, CESNI, 1995), is derived from the Unsatisfied Basic Needs
(UBN) direct method for measure poverty (Boltvinik, 2000; INDEC, 1994).
It is distributed according to criteria established by the Sectoral Commission for Decentralization that take into account the Unsatisfied Basic Needs
(NBI), the educational level and the population density of each Municipality.
The nine socioeconomic indicators were: (1) total fertility rate; (2) percentage of indigenous population; (3) percentage of households with children who do not attend school; (4) gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; (5) average household income; (6) percentage of poverty with unsatisfied basic needs
; (7) percentage of households with inadequate services (e.g., no connection to a piped water supply or to the sewer system or a septic tank); (8) percentage of households with electricity; and (9) average number of persons per bedroom.
Cyclical factors have a large impact on unemployment rates, while structural factors are much more important for indicators on unsatisfied basic needs
like housing, education, and sanitation.
Burunga is within the Country s urban population bottom 40 percent according to an analysis of Unsatisfied Basic Needs