The Government of Peru demonstrates strong political will to address drug production and trafficking in Peru, including through funding a substantial share of alternative development and eradication operations and through successful law enforcement operations in the Upper Huallaga Valley
, the VRAEM, and the tri-border region with Colombia and Brazil.
The arrest of Sendero leader Florindo Eleuterio Flores Hala (known as Comrade Artemio) in the Upper Huallaga Valley
in 2012, as well as the deaths of "Alipio" and "Gabriel" in the VRAEM in 2013, removed important obstacles hindering state security forces' ability to enter these regions to combat terrorism and illegal drug production.
The gang was thought to have been defeated following the arrests of two of its leaders in a rain forest in north central Peru known as the Upper Huallaga Valley
Cocaleros: Violence, Drugs and Social Mobilization in the Post-Conflict Upper Huallaga Valley
Two species are strictly limited to the subandean region: (i) Astrocaryum carnosum grows in the upper Huallaga valley
between Tocache and Tingo Maria.
From the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s, the Upper Huallaga Valley
in Peru experienced an economic boom based on the illicit cocaine trade while simultaneously experiencing contestations for control between the Peruvian state and the Shining Path guerilla group.
They lived off narcotics money in the coca-growing upper Huallaga Valley
. MRTA has not fared as well, although it had enough strength to carry out random acts of terrorism.
Gonzales on Sendero Luminoso's success in the coca-growing region of the Upper Huallaga Valley
and Michael L.
Its presence in the upper Huallaga Valley
has reaped great rewards for the Shining Path.
In the Upper Huallaga Valley
, where more than half of the coca refined into U.S.-bound cocaine is grown, they have proved flexible enough to put aside their otherwise puritanical moral code to form an alliance with coca growers in exchange for a healthy cut of the profits.
Sendero Luminoso (SL or Shining Path) factions in the Upper Huallaga Valley
(UHV) and in the Apurimac and Ene River Valley (VRAE) rely on cocaine production and trafficking for funding, and have attacked and killed police and military personnel engaged in counternarcotics operations.
The heart of the coca trade is the vast Upper Huallaga Valley
, the largest coca-growing zone in the world.