Since the three k-[epsilon] models, the two k-[omega] models and the RSM, implemented in Ansys Fluent are well known and widely employed in the literature, only the V2F model is briefly described below.
More information on the V2F model can be found in .
According to the company, the V2F System consists of plates and screws designed to better match the varying anatomy of the thoracolumbar spine.
Additionally, the company's Zimmer V2F Anterior Fixation System features All-Through-One Instrumentation to guide efficient screw placement and 6mm and 7mm dual-lead screws to provide enhanced insertion speed and bone screw fixation.
The v2f model can be used for the hybrid model, since it can resolve the near-wall viscous region at a reasonable computational cost (three scalar transport equations) and accounts for anisotropic behavior near the wall.
Our effort to develop the v2f model further was to introduce an algebraic equation for the normal stress [v'.sup.2]:
Turbulence Models and Wall Treatments Turbulence Model Abbreviation Near-Wall Treatment k-[epsilon] SKE Wall Resolved RNG k-[epsilon] RNG Wall Resolved Realizable k-[epsilon] REAL Wall Resolved ABID ABID Wall Resolved Lam-Bremhorst LB Wall Resolved Launder-Sharma LS Wall Resolved Yang-Shih YS Wall Resolved Abe-Kondoh-Nagano AKN Wall Resolved Chang-Hsieh-Chen CHC Wall Resolved Low Re k-[epsilon] KW Wall Resolved k-[epsilon]-sst KWSST Wall Resolved V2F V2F Wall Resolved RSM RSM Wall Resolved Boundary Conditions for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Turbulence Models.
The prediction of V2F was similar to the KWSST in terms of size and locations of the central and second vortices.
system consists of a range of plates and screws designed to closely match the varying anatomy of the thoracolumbar spine.
Turbulence Models Used in This Study Turbulence Models Tested Models Zero equation Indoor zero equation (0-eq) (Chen and Xu 1998) * EVM Two equation RNG k-[epsilon] (RNG) (Yakhot and Orszag 1986) * Launder-Sharma (LRN) (Launder and Sharma 1974) * SST k-[omega] (SST) (Menter 1994) * Three equation v2f-Davidson (v2f
) (Davidson et al.
model, as one of the most recently developed eddy-viscosity models, has a more solid theoretical ground than LRN models but is less stable for segregated solvers.
Except for the v2f
model, the other eddy-viscosity models used [square root of]k as the velocity scale in determining the eddy viscosity.