VACVVermont Alliance of Conservation Voters
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No VACV cases had been reported in humans or cattle in these provinces.
Polar compounds are expected to be responsible for the antiviral activity of the EE extract which has disclosed significant effect against HHV-1, VACV and DEN 2.
Rapid copy number variation of the K3L gene in the VACV ITR has recently been described as a mechanism for host immunomodulation (25).
Despite emergence of VACV in the past decade, VACV was also isolated during the 1960s and 1970s during government efforts to investigate emerging viruses in forests in Brazil (5-7).
To confirm that the isolated VACV was the OPV involved in this outbreak, we sequenced partial fragments of the A56R and A26L genes from the isolated virus.
The isolates from the patients B and C and the cow were named VACV Serro human 1/2011 (SH1V/2011), VACV Serro human 2/2011 (SH2V/2011), and VACV Serro bovine 1/2011 (SB1V/2011), respectively.
Another VACV subspecies, buffalopox virus (BPXV), has been isolated from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in rural areas in India and causes clinical signs that resemble those seen during BV outbreaks in Brazil (6).
The circulation of VACV in Sao Paulo forests was described in the 1960s and 1970s, although such isolates seem to be phylogenetically distinct from ARAV and other VACVs that currently circulate in Brazil (7).
Specific virus identification in such infections is particularly relevant in Brazil, considering the persistence of VACV in nature in this country, causing frequent outbreaks of pustular skin disease in dairy cattle (4-6).
On examination, he had clinically compatible VACV lesions, including papular, umbilicated lesions with overlying vesicles and a few pustules.
HA, hemagglutinin; VACV, vaccinia virus; CTGV, vaccinia virus Cantalago strain; MT, Mato Grosso State; RO, Rondonia State; ID, identical viruses.
Real-time PCRs designed to differentiate orthopoxvirus species were performed, and samples were positive for VACV DNA but not for monkeypox virus DNA (5) (Table).