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Nurse anxiety was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI Y-1), a 20-item questionnaire used to measure a person's emotional state response to a stressful situation and emotional response to worry, nervousness, tension, and apprehension (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983).
However, when a person was confronted with a novel testing situation, anxious emotion would probably arise and influence his or her test performance (Spielberger & Vagg, 1995; Wenemark, Persson, Brage, Svensson & Kristenson, 2011).
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory The STAI (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983) is a 40-item selfreport consisting of a state measure and a trait measure of anxiety.
The State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI; Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983) is a widely used self-report instrument measuring two types of anxieties, situational state anxiety and general trait anxiety.
The principal outcome (O) was state anxiety measured by the State Anxiety scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983).