Os valores de indice de forma (SHAPE_ MN) apresentados pelas paisagens VN, VB1, VB5, mostraram a presenca de manchas com formas mais complexas e irregulares, como observado na Tabela 3.
Fragmentos Classes de tamanho (ha) % < 1 38,16 1,01-2 19,49 2,01-3 8,91 3,01-4 6,12 4,01-5 2,78 5,01-10 11,14 10,01-50 12,25 50,01-100 0,27 > 100 0,83 TABLE 3: Values obtained for number of patches (NP), largest pacth index (LPI, %), average patch size (AREA_MN, ha), density of patches (PD), average shape (SHAPE_MN), nearest neighbor average distance (ENN_MN, m) and structural connectivity (COHESION, %) for each landscape simulation: VN = natural vegetation; VB1 = 1 m buffer around the forest fragments; VB5 = 5 m buffer around the forest fragments, and VA = natural vegetation and restored APPs.
The growth inhibitory effect of EVn-50 or VB1 on cells was measured using the SRB assay as Skehan et al.
Cells were treated with various concentrations of EVn-50 or VB1 24 h.
The effect of EVn-50 or VB1 on inducing apoptosis of MDA-MB-435 cells was measured by TUNEL and DAPI staining.
The EVn-50 is composed 70% of lignans and VB1 and VB2 are two most abundant lignan in EVn-50 as revealed by HPLC analysis in Fig.
To dissect the underlying mechanisms of the anticancer effect exerted by EVn-50, we used breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 and liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 to assess the influence of lignans mixture EVn-50 and the purified EVn-50 lignan compound VB1 on cancer cell cycle with flow cytometric analysis.
For this purpose, we examined the morphological changes of tubulin in cells treated with lignans mixture EVn-50 and its purified lignan compound VB1 by immunofluorescence staining.
Meanwhile, we observed that the nucleus of MDA-MB-435 cells treated with EVn-50 or VB1 exhibited condensed and cleaved morphology, a typical apoptotic characteristic (Elmore 2007), while the nucleus in control cells exhibited uniformity morphology (Fig.
Meanwhile, these above pharmacological effects elicited by lignans mixture EVn-50 could be analogously recapitulated by its purified lignan compound VB1, strongly indicating lignans in EVn-50 largely account for those pharmacological effects.
The secondary valves (VA1, VA2, VB1
, and VB2) operate in the same manner as the primary valves.
Siemens has announced it will be supplying a VB1
high-current switchgear and six larger converter units to an aluminum smelting plant in Karmy, Norway.