Military service members can be exposed to VEEV
when deployed to regions where the virus is endemic (e.
has a single-stranded, linear, poly(A)-tailed RNA genome.
Appealing to millennial consumers, VEEV
's portfolio includes award-winning brands VEEV
Spirit, a 70 proof vodka alternative, and VitaFrute Cocktails by VEEV
, the first line of certified organic ready-to-drink cocktails.
As infeccoes por arbovirus em animais domesticos consistem de sindromes sistemicas, encefalicas ou hemorragicas, sendo que a forma encefalica e mais comum em equinos que sao mais acometidos pelos arbovirus EEEV, WEEV, VEEV
, JEV e WNV (26).
To further test this hypothesis of differential vertebrate hosts for NA versus SA EEEV strains, we compared their infection dynamics in a wild rodent (cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus) known to support VEEV
transmission and in a passerine bird (house sparrow, Passer domesticus) known to be a competent host of NA EEEV.
We recently described a severe infection in a 3-year-old boy who had VEEV
subtype ID (14).
During the mid-1990s, 2 epizootic equine outbreaks occurred in coastal Oaxaca and Chiapas states in Mexico; the causative agent was determined to be VEEV
subtype IE (VEEV
-IE), which was previously considered to be not virulent for equids (1).
strains are classified into 2 epidemiologic groups: enzootic and epizootic.
Dogs experimentally infected with VEEV
(strains not reported) survived infection, and minimal HI titers of 320 developed (14).
(family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is an important emerging and reemerging pathogen of humans and equines in the neotropics.
vectors and reservoir hosts of enzootic VEEV
but a dearth of typical epidemic vectors.
1] progeny from Proechimys chrysaeolus collected at a Colombian enzootic VEEV
focus using sympatric and allopatric virus strains.