VEGFBVascular Endothelial Growth Factor B
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Given these findings, the potential role of Akt and Erk 1/2 in VEGFB's neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic cells was also investigated.
In summary, it was shown that the mechanisms of VEGFB's neuroprotective action can involve VEGFR-1 mediated upregulation of FATP1 and FATP4 and activation of the Akt and Erk 1/2 signaling pathways [19] (Figure 1).
the role of VEGFB and VEGFR-1 in motor degeneration in rodent models of ALS was investigated [31].
Elucidating on the role that VEGFB plays in this process was the goal of a study conducted by Kivela et al.
The DNA clones for EGFR, KI67, VEGFA and VEGFB showed the highest expression in cluster 1, while.
The determination of tumor markers in artemsinin-sensitive PC-3 and artemisinin-resistant DU-145 prostate carcinoma cells showed that high TFR, 10X1, MYC, and VEGFC expression was found in sensitive PC-3 cells and high ECFR, KI67, VEGFA, and VEGFB expression in resistant DU-145 cells.
Here, we observed that artemisinin-resistant DU-145 prostate cancer cells expressed more VEGFA and VEGFB but less VEGFC than sensitive PC-3 cells.
Gene Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 ABCB1 1 3 3 GSTP1 0 2 1 EGFR 9 4 3 MYC 2 7 1 C0X2 3 1 4 LOX1 0 2 0 K167 8 0 0 TFRC 2 11 3 VEGFA 12 1 1 VEGFB 7 0 0 VEGFC 1 6 0 chi square test: p = 1.29 x [10.sup.-6]
Salt-free primers for target genes VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD and PGF, as well as for housekeeping gene GAPDH, were generated by Invitrogen[TM].
Table 1 Primers for Human VEGFA, B, C, D, PGF and GAPDH PCR Product Gene Sequence Size VEGFA Forward: GGGCAGAATCATCACGAAGT (100-119) 211 Reverse: TGGTGATGTTGGACTCCTCA (221-310) VEGFB Forward: CCCTTGACTGTGGAGCTCAT (163-172) 203 Reverse: CACTGGCTGTGTTCTTCCAG (346-365) VEGFC Forward: CACTTGCTGGGCTTCTTCTC (4-23) 173 Reverse: TGCTCCTCCAGATCTTTGCT (157-176) VEGFD Forward: TGTAAGTGCTTGCCAACAGC (565-574) 163 Reverse: GTGGATTTTCCTCCTGCAAA (708-727) PGF Forward: GTTCAGCCCATCCTGTGTCT (216-235) 163 Reverse: AACGTGCTGAGAGAACGTCA (359-378) GAPDH Forward: TGAAGGTCGGAGTCAACGGAT (11-31) 181 Reverse: TTCTCAGCCTTGACGGTGCCA (171-191) PCR, polymerase chain reaction; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; PGF, placental growth factor; GAPDH, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Together with ALOX15, vascular endothelial growth factors A and B (VEGFA and VEGFB) promote vascular growth, which contributes to the development of atherosclerotic plaque and plaque instability (Mochizuki and Kwon 2008; Sluimer and Daemen 2009).
Twelve genes were selected from among genotyped MESA candidate genes: ACE, ADRB2, AGT, AGTR1, ALOX15, EDN1, GRK4, PTGS1, PTGS2, TLR4, VEGFA, and VEGFB. Genes were chosen based upon hypothesized mechanisms responsible for the effect of air pollutants on LVM as described above.