VEREX IV completed its work by the end of 1993 and prepared a final report.
Ultimately, VEREX members believed verification was possible and concluded that "some of the potential verification measures would contribute to strengthening the effectiveness and improving the implementation of the Convention, [while] also recognizing that appropriate and effective verification could reinforce the Convention." (108) Because of the dual-use nature of almost all biological weapons-related facilities, equipment, and materials, VEREX concluded that no single approach could be used.
In addition to creating VEREX, the Third Review Conference expanded a previous confidence-building measure to include the exchange of information on national biological defense research programs.
The parties to the BWC held a special conference in 1994 to consider VEREX's final report.
(noting that VEREX is "open to all States parties," and that "the Group shall be chaired by Ambassador Tiber Toth (Hungary), who shall be assisted by two Vice-Chairmen to be elected by the States Parties participating in the first meeting").
3, at 2 (1993) (Summary Report (BWC/CONF.III/ VEREX/8)) [hereinafter VEREX Report]; Toth et al., supra note 5, at 68-69 (noting that "[a]s many as 53 States Parties participated in the sessions as did an observer representing the World Health Organization," and "[a]n additional observer representing the United Nations Industrial Development Organization ...
(101.) VEREX Report, supra note 97, at 1-31 (Annex I, VEREX-1 Summary (BWC/CONF.III/VEREX/2)).
The VEREX Report proposed five combinations "as examples to illustrate the evaluation of enhanced capabilities and limitations of measures": (1) declarations plus multilateral information sharing plus satellite surveillance plus visual inspection; or (2) the combination of surveillance of publications plus surveillance of legislation plus data on transfers, transfer requests and production plus multilateral information sharing plus exchange visits; or (3) the combination of interviewing plus visual inspections, identification of key equipment plus auditing plus sampling and identification; or (4) declarations plus multilateral information sharing plus on-site visual inspection; or (5) declarations plus information monitoring.
(114.) See Special Conference (VEREX), BWC/SPCONF/1, available at http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/sbtwc/verex/verexl.htm (last visited Jan.
Note that since 1995, the work of the Ad Hoc Group has moved through three stages: (1) the preliminary work built upon the VEREX negotiations and final report to identify elements of a protocol; (2) a rolling text of the draft Protocol; and (3) the inclusion of detailed provisions and then to negotiations moving to a final framework for the protocol and the details of key elements.