These VESCs have the potential to serve as a new cell-based therapy for blood vessel-related diseases.
A research team centered at Osaka University may now have discovered the elusive stem cell, providing evidence for adult vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) capable of generating fully functional blood vessels.
After isolating just the ECs that expressed CD157, they set out to determine whether they were truly VESCs.
When VESCs collected from healthy mice were injected into mice with hemophilia A, the cells began generating new liver blood vessels--and the level of FVIII in the blood shot up, from less than one percent of normal to over 60 percent.
The researchers also used VESCs from muscle tissue to treat limb ischemia in mice, where a lack of oxygenated blood can lead to tissue damage and foot necrosis.
(vi) A PMSM motor, connected to the VESC motor controller.
After the control PCB, the other essential part of the electronics and software on the model car is the VESC motor controller.
In the same way as the VESC motor controller can be configured to run with almost any PMSM without writing code and/or using expensive lab equipment for motor parameter identification, the control software can easily be configured for different model car configurations.
To deal with the low update rate, latency, and jitter of the RTK-SN position samples, dead reckoning from sensor fusion between the odometry data from the VESC motor controller and samples from the IMU is combined with the RTK-SN position samples to get a total update rate of 100 Hz without latency.
(2) The motor position is sampled from the VESC motor controller at 100 Hz and combined with the estimated heading from the position filter to calculate a relative dead reckoning position.