Most of those who research and write on audit have devoted studies on the impact of VFM far more than on its actual practice.
In terms of politics, he pointed to the late 1980s/early 1990s when government VFM audits in the United Kingdom were applied with increasing frequency as demand to verify government action and practices grew louder.
The issue of the comprehensiveness of the VFM is compelling, and given the concerns expressed at the beginning of this century, must be tested: to what degree are government operations actually audited for VFM?
Donald Savoie (1995), Sharon Sutherland (1986) and Denis Saint-Martin (2004) considered VFM audits as political activities that essentially challenged democratic government.
The third school has focused on trying to theorize the process of VFM audits.
Very early on, Roberts and Politt (1994) argued that VFM enhanced democratic accountability, but fell short of the standards expected in a program evaluation or review.
VFM models A and B estimate under steady-state conditions the chilled and condenser water mass flow rates of chillers with reciprocating and centrifugal compressors.
The uncertainties associated with calculation of the thermodynamic properties of a refrigerant are taken into consideration for the uncertainty analysis of the VFM models.
(2012), which will be denoted as VFM model A, estimates the chilled and condenser mass flow rates using measurements from the sensors embedded inside a chiller, which are connected to the BAS.
VFM model A can be used for scenarios 1, 2, and 3 based on available data; however, it cannot be used for scenarios 4 and 5 because information of the discharge temperature is not available.
VFM model B can be used to estimate the chilled and condenser water flow rates.