Basing on the geometries shown in Figure 16 right, VGJ are installed on the jet ports in the valve seat areas injecting compressed air directly into the ports with the aim of raising the swirl intensity onto the level of the ref-ports.
The point marked in green indicates the swirl intensity at inlet valve closing (IVC) and is considered in following as target swirl value for the swirl generation via VGJ on jet-ports.
Ref-ports: Jet-ports: * Focus on swirl features * Focus on optimized flow with scroll angles of * Features with scroll angles of 0 270[degrees] and 30[degrees] [degrees] * With VGJ in valve seat area * Without VGJ ([??] 3.1 mm) * Strong swirl number * Low swirl number but high but low flow number flow number * Swirl induced by * Swirl controlled by air injection port geometry via VGJs * No demand on * Extra power required for extra energy compressing air
The angular momentum of the intake air is not as usual given by the helical or tangential intake port geometries but produced from air jets or the so-called Vortex Generating Jets (VGJs) that inject air at a certain angle directly into the intake ports and create air vortices by this means in the ports or near the valve seat area.
In addition the test bench is equipped with extra air injection devices as shown in Figure 2 that comprised VGJs assembled in the intake ports with Jet-diameters from 1.8 to 3.4 mm, PUN-compressed air tubing with Festo-adapters to simplify the installation of different air injection variants, a Sensysflow-air mass flowmeter from ABB with measuring range from 0 to 60 kg/h ([+ or -]1 %), temperature ([+ or -]0.1 [degrees]C) and pressure sensors up to 2.5 bar ([+ or -] 0.0375 bar), a pressure regulator as well as a central compressed air supply up to 10 bar.
At first, the influence of air injection using VGJs was studied on a set of low-swirl intake ports derived from a preliminary study .
But it has limitations such as it does not have the ability to provide a time-varying control action, whereas inserted VGJ could be time varying (rotating jets) and could be switched on/off or even an increase and decrease in magnitude of j et energy could be possible if desired.
Vane-type VG being passive flow control device is shown in Figure 3, whereas VGJ as shown in Figure 4 is used for active flow control in the study.
Two types of flow control devices--vane-type vortex generator (VG) and vortex generator jet (VGJ) are used in the study.
Vortex generator jet (VGJ) is designed as given in the literature [11,12] and is used for the study.
A calibrated orifice meter (design as per ISO: 5167-2003) is used to provide the predetermined mass flow rate into the VGJ. Uncertainties associated in the experimentation are determined as per Kline  and are listed in Table 1.
Sequences of the dif-like sites harboured by other vibriophages Phage Genome size attP sequence (kb) VEJ 6.8 ACTTCGCATTA TGTCGGC TTATGGTAAAA VGJ
1.5 ACTTCGCATTA TGTCGGC TTATGGTAAAA VSK 6.9 ACTTCGCAGTA TGTCGGC TTATGGTAAAA VSKK 6.8 ACTTCGCATTA TGTCGGC TTATGGTAAAA KSF1 1.1 UK fs1 6.3 UK fs2 8.6 AGTGCGTATTA TGTCGGC TTATGGTAAAA f231 8.1 AGTGCGCATTA TGGGCGC TTATGTTGAAT Phage Host Integration Accession site number VEJ V.