1], in comparison with the other participants with TTA, raise the question whether they could be taught to employ this landing strategy to better accommodate impact forces, especially since it has been shown that extrinsic feedback can significantly decrease VGRF
 and the implied injury potential during landing.
Additionally, the VGRF
values were also reduced during the EXT condition which has also been shown to help in reducing injury rates (Williams et al.
Prior to any calculations, we used the mean signal of the unloaded force plate for baseline correction of the VGRF
Although the first peaks of the VGRF
were most symmetric when subjects used the prosthetic foot designed to match the physiological ankle-foot roll-over shape (F3), subjects were still unbalanced.
These include peak VGRF
, early stance (0-20%) peak ankle moment, mid-late stance (20-100% peak ankle moment, dorsiflexion ROM, peak knee moment, knee ROM, knee ROM during absorption, and hip ROM (Table 2).
05: peak knee-flexion angle during stance, knee-flexion angle at opposite heel strike (OHS), peak knee-flexion angle during swing, peak knee-flexion moment, peak coronal knee moment for the intact limb, peak sagittal-plane hip power in early and late stance, peak sagittal-plane knee power for the intact limb in early and late stance, peak sagittal ankle power for the intact limb in late stance, maximum VGRF
from early to midstance (10%-50% of stance phase), and timing of the maximum VGRF
from early to midstance.
of each jump was recorded using a Kistler Force Plate (Kistler Instrumentation Corp.
data at 1,000 Hz were collected using a force platform (Dinascan/IBV 8.
The kinetic variables included the VGRF
at the six temporal events for each foot and the maximum VGRF
of each foot throughout the entire swing.
Power analysis was performed with the use of G Power for knee valgus, VGRF
, and rectus femoris NEMG (Buchner et al.
The 360[degrees] jumps and tuck jumps produced the highest vGRFs (5.
From a sport scientific perspective, changes in skiing mode, pitch and different skier's levels are also influencing factors on the variances in the vGRFs of the PI and the FP.