These sites were selected based in part upon the frequencies of mutations in the vgsc gene in local Ae.
Briefly, Ile1016 frequency was greater in mosquitoes in and around Merida and lower in outlying, more rural communities, thereby providing the opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the Casa Segura approach in areas with differing frequencies of vgsc mutations.
As inhibition of VGSC activation would result in reduced neuronal activity and [Na.sup.+] influx across the neuronal membrane, activation of VGSC plays a critical role in mediating sustained [Na.sup.+] entry during ischemia and hypoxia, which then induce membrane depolarization [3, 18].
Currents through VGSC were measured using a MultiClamp 700B patch-clamp amplifier (Axon Instruments, USA).
DDT and pyrethroids resistance are at least partially attributed to the reductions in insecticide efficacy caused by point mutations in their common target site, the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC
), and perhaps also some sharing of metabolic resistance mechanisms (45).
Wu et al., "VGSC
: a web-based vector graph toolkit of genome synteny and collinearity," BioMed Research International, vol.
Detailed biological studies of this peptide revealed that 1 is an activator of VGSC
, (26-28) although its binding site on VGSC
Pyrethroids act on the nervous system by disrupting the normal function of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs
), which control the influx of sodium ions into neurons to transmit nerve signals.
In recent years, much attention has been focused on four members of the VGSC
family--Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9--and has identified their potential as drug targets for neuropathic pain.
The primary molecular targets underlying pyrethroid-induced toxicity are voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs
) of insects and vertebrates (Narahashi 1996; Soderlund et al.
However, it remains unclear whether dexmedetomidine can inhibit the function of VGSCs
in neurons of the trigeminal system.
However, the role of VGSCs
in NSCs has been ignored because of their inexcitability.