VLEMVentral Longitudinal Eclosion Muscle
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Uses of VLEM to demonstrate the value of the simulation experiments show that experiments can be performed in stages commencing with objectives, studying the principles, preparing experimental set-ups, choosing appropriate instruments, conducting the experiment and analysing the data.
Design and development of the virtual lab of engineering mechanics (VLEM).
Soils and litter mass were sampled on 13 occasions over 26 mo in the HEM and LEM plots on transect P and on two occasions in the LEM and VLEM plots on transect R.
In the VLEM plots (on transect R) the percentage contribution was [less than] 1% of basal area (Table 1B).
For the VLEM plots individual ectomycorrhizal species abundances were too small to list, indicating near absence from that forest type.
For the nonectomycorrhizal species, LEM and VLEM plots on transect R were less floristically different than LEM and HEM on transect P.
Means of basal area, and density, of all trees did not differ significantly (P [greater than] 0.05) between the LEM plots on transects R and those on transect P (t = 0.69, [df.sub.adj] = 12; t = 0.28, [df.sub.adj] = 7, respectively), and neither did [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 3 OMITTED] they differ significantly between the VLEM plots on transect R and the HEM plots on transect P (t = 0.14, [df.sub.adj] = 12 and t = -1.56, [df.sub.adj] = 9, respectively).
Ordination of the 12 half-plots (and 24 quarter-plots) sampled on transect R, using all (n = 178) species, and either both basal area or density data revealed no separation LEM and VLEM plots on axes 1 and 2.
For transect R, there is little evidence for considering LEM and VLEM plots to be separate forest types on floristic grounds.
On transect R the mean depth ([+ or -] SE) of the root layer was 6.7 [+ or -] 0.6 mm and 5.4 [+ or -] 1.1 mm in the VLEM and LEM plots, respectively (t = 1.07, [df.sub.adj] = 7, P [greater than] 0.05).
The analogous design for transect R variables with six LEM and six VLEM plots sampled on two occasions (dates) led to 12 and 24 units for the two strata, respectively.