Incorporating the latest innovation in online training, including micro-learning, comprehensive mobile access and xAPIs, VLSs
are online platforms designed to provide a space for learners to form communities of practice around a particular topic or geographical area.
The Italian ships use the Leonardo/Selex MFRA C-band (5-25-5.925 GHz) naval surveillance radar and two eight-cell DCNS Sylver A50 VLSs
, although employing the same Elettronica-Thales EW suite.
In previous research, however, no VLS has been preferred consistently by learners, and individuals have selected different VLSs
based on their learning preferences and feelings about effectiveness (Chacon-Beltran, Abello-Contesse, & del Mar Torreblanca-Lopez, 2010; Hacquebord & Stellingwerf, 2007; Levine & Reves, 1998; Nation, 2001, 2004; Schmitt, 1997, 2000).
The identified ones enabled designing the questionnaires; they were based on 947 instances of VLSs
used by the young beginners and on 863 ones used by the pre-intermediate young adolescents.
also includes a breakdown of household expenditures in terms of quintiles of the population.
The first Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS
) was undertaken between October 1992 and October 1993.
According to the 1997-98 Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS
), the ratio of poor  has dropped from 58 per cent of the population in 1993 to 37 per cent in 1998.
Currently, Bougas is a PhD student at NTUA and a researcher in the Microprocessor and VLSS
Most research findings on VLSs
have been obtained either by using questionnaire surveys to determine what strategies were used by L2 learners (e.g., Fan, 2003; Gu & Johnson, 1996; Kojig-Sabo & Lightbown, 1999) or by investigating the effects of individual strategies on L2 learners' vocabulary acquisition, such as mnemonic VLSs
(e.g., Morin, 2003; Sagarra & Alba, 2006).
Data from two rounds of the Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS
) data are used in this paper.
(3.) According to a comprehensive survey entitled Viet Nam Living Standard Survey (VLSS
) conducted jointly by the Vietnamese General Statistical Office and State Planning Committee and the World Bank (1995), there is a marked disparity in the standard of living between the richest and the poorest.