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PET scans of VMAT2 on Parkinson's disease patients taking dopamine-increasing medications, such as levodopa, show that brain dopamine and VMAT2 are related to each other: As dopamine levels in the brain go up with levodopa, VMAT2 levels go down, and vice versa.
SOM has conducted numerous validating preclinical studies which thus far indicate that SOM3355 has the potential to have promising clinical efficacy as well as properties that are likely to avoid the side effects of other members of the VMAT2 inhibitor class that have led to restricted prescribing.
At day 70, most [TH.sup.+] neurons consistently coexpressed the dopamine transporter (DAT), the AMPAR subunit GluR2, and vesicular monoamine-associated transporter 2 (VMAT2), indicating a mature DA neuronal phenotype (Figures 1(b)--1(f)).
It should be noted that expression in the hypothalamus and midbrain is almost identical between the two species with respect to ADDC, HTT and VMAT2 genes.
The specific primers for TH were sense, 5'-AGCCTGTGTACTTTGTGTCCGAGA-3' and antisense, 5'-TGTGAGGGCTGTCCAGTACGTC-3'; for VMAT2 were sense, 5'-CCTTCGAAGTCCACCTGCTAA-3' and antisense, 5'-CATCACCGATGGGATATGACTG-3'; for DAT were sense, 5'-AGACACCAGTGGAGGCTCAAGA3' and antisense, 5'-GCATCCCAGCAATAACCATGAAG3'; and for GAPDH were sense, 5'-GACATGCCGCCTGGAGAAAC-3' and antisense, 5'-AGCCCAGGATGCCCTTTAGT-3'.
ZF expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the vesicular monoamine transporter promoter (VMAT2:GFP) were purchased from the UCLA core facility and were used in this study to identify VMAT2 [dopaminergic, (nor)adrenergic, serotonergic] neurons in whole embryos (Wen et al.
Notably, reserpine irreversibly blocks the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2), and there is evidence that reserpine also inhibits DAT (Metzger et al.
His research makes the case that a gene called VMAT2 influences "self-transcendence" on Cloninger's scale: A variation in the gene seemed to be connected to a greater propensity to self-transcendence.
Expression of Lmx1a, Aadc, Vmat2, Th, and Tuj1 genes was clearly detected by our RT-PCR experiments (Figure 4(d)).
The gene in question codes for VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2), a protein that wraps chemical messengers (monoamines) in vesicles for transport through the nerve fibers and is crucial to many brain Sanctions.
Previous rodent studies suggested that removing Omega-3 from the diet might reduce dopamine storage (the neurotransmitter associated with mood as well as working memory) and decrease density in the striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (commonly referred to as VMAT2, a protein associated with decision making).
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