This study compared self-administered VMBR to a delayed-training control.
We hypothesized that sport performance would increase significantly more in the VMBR condition than in a delayed-training control condition.
At this interview, each participant completed a consent form and a demographic questionnaire to screen for prior VMBR or similar imagery training.
Participants were strategically assigned to VMBR training or a delayed-training control group, in a 2 X 2 repeated measures factorial design with one within-participants variable (pre-test X post-test) and one between participants variable (VMBR training X delayed-training control).
The self-administered VMBR included three major components: a 42-page training manual, a relaxation audiotape, and a visualization videotape.
The face validity of the entire VMBR package was reviewed and endorsed by two persons familiar with the field of sport psychology prior to the study.
The Hall and Erffmeyer (1983) study generated other empirical investigations of the suggested benefits of including videotaped modeling in the VMBR procedure.
In addition to the simple VMBR and VMBR with videotaped modeling included in the previous research, a videotape alone was included to examine the independent effects that such a treatment may have on free-throw shooting performance.
The VMBR and VMBR+VM conditions engaged in a 30-minute training exercise designed to help develop the subjects' relaxation and mental imaging abilities.
Subjects in the VMBR group were exposed to a 30-minute audiotaped procedure in which they first were taken through progressive relaxation exercises and then given instructions to help them mentally practice successful free throw shooting.
The majority of VMBR subjects (56%) felt that the mental imagery component was most useful for improving free throw shooting, 2570 felt relaxation was most useful, and 18% claimed both procedures equally effective.
In Study 2, adapted VMBR
procedure and performance sessions were conducted on a more condensed basis, that is, two times a week for two weeks.