Infection with vNDV alone caused clinical disease with moderate respiratory signs including snicking, swollen infraorbital sinuses open mouth breathing and foamy discharge in the mouth cavity.
Tracheal respiratory epithelium and primary bronchi in vNDV and E.
coli and vNDV inoculation sequence in co-infected groups on disease outcome.
coli strain (O78) and vNDV alone are able to produce moderate respiratory infection through adhesion and colonization of the respiratory tract, but without each other help do not induce severe respiratory disease and mortality in suspected broilers.
coli and vNDV infections in poultry, a surveillance of vNDV and routine diagnosis of E.
In the group of thymus and proventriculus tissues, which had a scoring system composed of 5 grades (0-4), the lesions induced by vNDV in the thymus and proventriculus scored 4.00 [+ or -] 00 and 4.00 [+ or -] 00, respectively.
In the group of the brain, caecal tonsil, and liver tissues, which had a scoring system composed of 4 grades (0-3), the lesions induced by vNDV in the brain, caecal tonsil, and liver scored 0.12 [+ or -] 08, 2.96 [+ or -] 0.04, and 3.00 [+ or -] 00, respectively.
(a) Day 3 pi of vNDV. Hyperaemia (black arrow), hyperplasia (white double arrow), and deciliation (double arrow in black), lesion scoring of 4.00.Scale bar = 20 [micro]m.
(a) Day 5 pi of vNDV, endothelial hypertrophy (white arrow) and neuronal necrosis (black arrow).
The cleavage site motif 112-R-R-Q-K-R-F117 was present in AW-14 strain, which is typical of vNDV strain (Miller et al., 2015).
The HN gene sequence of the chicken/NDV/Pak/AW-14 strain was 571 aa, characteristics of the vNDV strain (Tsai et al., 2004, Habib et al., 2015, Maminiaina et al., 2010).
Over-all, the data confirmed that the commercial poultry, village chickens and pet birds in Pakistan, Indonesia and Middle East were also affected by identical vNDV strains since 2011-12, leading to fifth panzootic.