PLANO, Texas - Toyota Motor North America (TMNA) is committing to aggressively reduce its carbon output in the United States by entering into Virtual Power Purchase Agreements (VPPAs
Ball was advised on the Frontier II VPPA
by Schneider Electric Energy and Sustainability Services, which assisted the company in its project selection and negotiations.
The use of AI requires the use of personally identifiable information ("PII"), which is regulated more strictly for cable TV as compared to its streaming-based competitors, which are regulated under the Video Privacy Protection Act ("VPPA
that the VPPA
was created "almost entirely because a reporter
passed in 1988 in direct response to an awkward moment during Judge Robert Bork's contentious Supreme Court nomination hearings.
This energy agreement comes on the heels of the company's first VPPA
for 40 MW of a new wind farm in West Virginia that is expected to generate 125,000 megawatt hours of wind energy annually.
(29) Importantly, VPPA
contains a statutory damages provision
Over the past few years, a number of viewers have brought their cases to court, suing for violations of the VPPA
. While these cases are mainly favorable for streaming services, they offer a number of valuable lessons about viewer privacy and what information a website or mobile app may share with social media networks, third party advertisers or analytics companies without running afoul of the VPPA
AFTER FOUR YEARS of litigation, a California judge dismissed a case against Hulu in April 2015, saying the online video provider did not violate the Video Privacy Protection Act (VPPA
) because there was no proof that Hulu knowingly disclosed user information and viewing histories to Facebook.
A far narrower provision, the Reagan-era Video Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (VPPA
) applies a downstream data protection model to "personally identifiable rental records" of "prerecorded video cassette tapes or similar audio visual material." (141) The written consent to share (opt-in) provision was watered down by the Video Privacy Protection Act Amendments Act of 2012 at the behest of streaming video providers and social media services that wished to use Internet-based consent models.