The second type of capabilities is the one that supports dynamic improvement through the creation, modification, or enlargement of the VRIN
(21) GILSON, E., L'Itre et L'Essence, Paris: Vrin
, 1972, 81-144.
(2) Alain de Libera, L'unite de I'intellect: Commentaire du De unitate intellectus contra averroistas de Thomas d'Aquin (Paris: Vrin
, 2004), esp.
Barney (2012) has argued that SCM can be a source of sustained competitive advantage because (1) SCM may facilitate the acquisition of strategic resources in factor markets and (2) the SCM practices themselves may exhibit the characteristics of VRIN
, Bibliotheque d'histoire de la philosophie.
Organizational assets refer to culture, structure and internal systems as well as processes, which, because of the difficulties in duplicating them, may be characterised by VRIN
attributes (Galbreath, 2005, p.
Their paper firstly reviews basic RBV theory [notably Valuable, Rare, Imperfectly Imitable, Non-Substitutable (VRIN
), dynamic capabilities and absorptive capacity] so these definitions will not be repeated here.
To induce competitive advantage, a resource must be VRIN
: valuable to explore opportunities and neutralize threats in the organizational environment; rare among the current and potential competition; inimitable or imperfectly replicable; and nonsubstitutable given the unavailability of a strategic substitute resource.