VRPTWVehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows
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In the literature, the VRPTW has been extensively studied by many researchers [14-18].
For example, Yu and Yang solved the period vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) by adopting ACO [39].
Iqbal and Rahman [54] tackled the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW) using the ABC algorithm.
The experimental test uses the benchmark data which was 100-node VRPTW calculation example and compiled by Solomon in 1987.
In practice, the load consolidation problem also considers the vehicle routing problem of pickup and delivery (VRPPD) and vehicle routing problem of time windows (VRPTW).
VRP itself is an NP-Hard problem and the researchers' experiences suggested that a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW) was basically a harder problem than VRP [7].
After Dantzig and Ramser (1959), a considerable number of variants of VRP have been studied, including (1) the VRP with hard, soft, and fuzzy service time windows (VRPTW); (2) the VRP considering backhauls (VRPB); (3) the VRP considering maximum route length, (DVRP); (4) periodic VRP (PVRP); (5) VRP with multiple trips (VPRMT); (6) split delivery vehicle routing problem (SDVRP) and others; (7) the VRP with minimized emissions [5].
Since first being proposed by Dantzig and Ramser [1], research on VRP has extended into numerous avenues after decades of exploration and research, such as the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) [3], the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) [4], and vehicle routing problems with pickup and delivery (VRPPD) [5, 6], among others.