26) VTVPA and the U visa provisions in particular were part of a legislative effort dating back to the implementation of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) in 1994 through which Congress sought to provide protections to survivors of domestic violence, sexual assault, and other crimes.
VTVPA was comprised of two separate but related sections, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA 2000) (32) and the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 (VAWA 2000), (33) which together offered protection to women and children seeking to escape from the horrors of forced labor in underground brothels and sweatshops and from violent and abusive intimate relationships.
It is telling that the immigration-related provisions in VTVPA were neither highlighted in the mainstream media coverage of the bill, nor in press statements by the legislation's many sponsors.
All social workers can certainly contact their legislators to help ensure that shelters authorized in the current VTVPA
come to fruition through actual fund allocation.
69) Under section 201 of the TRIA, claimants in cases not covered by the VTVPA vie with each other to obtain the blocked assets of terrorist states to satisfy the compensatory damages portions of their judgments.
For this reason, although section 2002 of the VTVPA allows claimants to execute against certain assets, the President was given the authority to stop the attachment of the frozen assets of a state "in the interest of national security.
3061 would reauthorize the grant programs under the VTVPA
, as amended; create new grant programs for U.
One month after the enactment of the VTVPA, on November 28, 2000, Flatow applied for such funds, electing 100 percent recovery of the amount of compensatory damages plus post-judgment interest, under [section] 2002(a)(1)(B).
Section 2002 of the VTVPA modified this earlier provision by changing the mandate that the State and Treasury Departments "shall" assist those who have obtained judgments against terrorist states in locating the assets of those states to the more permissive "should make every effort" to assist such judgment creditors.
The VTVPA has engendered other complaints regarding the lack of equity and fairness in the distribution of these assets.
While the solution proposed in this Note incorporates the idea of executive review, it offers advantages over the VTVPA by conducting this review at the jurisdictional stage, thereby removing the uncertainties of execution before plaintiffs and the courts expend their scarce resources.
Left to its own devices, Congress imposed a haphazard compensation scheme through the VTVPA that arbitrarily differentiated among judgment-holding plaintiffs.