as a psychometric test of individual differences in visual imagery vividness: A critical quantitative review and plea for direction.
2) The VVIQ
is considered a valid and reliable instrument for measuring vividness of visual imagery.
Scientifically, the mental image exists through its effects, its functional consequences--not answers on the VVIQ
Additionally, a rating of vividness was added so that vividness ratings could be compared between the shape stimuli on the new questionnaire and vividness ratings from the VVIQ
Marks (1972) originally presented VVIQ
only as a valid discriminator of subjects with good and poor visualization ability.
Hence, ANOVA results are reported here without using VVIQ
scores as a covariate.
has been designed to test visual imagery ability.
Since the publication of preliminary studies with the VVIQ
(Marks, 1972), there have been more than 150 published studies investigating the psychometric properties of the questionnaire.
Convergent validity is supported by a significant correlation with the VVIQ
(r = 0.
This imagery was elicited using the first four items and instructions in the VVIQ
The Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ; Isaac, Marks & Russell, 1986) uses a similar format to the VVIQ
A measure of Vividness of Visual Imagery (the VVIQ
of Marks, 1973).