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Our results confirmed the clinical picture of alexia without agraphia which arises as a consequence of a lesion in medial occipitotemporal gyrus in dominant hemisphere [3], which is also known as an anatomic correlate for Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) [13].
This VWFA is included in the simultaneous recognition of complete words, and therefore also into the fluent, conventional reading.
Intestinal dysbiosis has also been demonstrated in SS patients, and, interestingly, gingival colonisation by Capnocytphaga ochracea in genetically predisposed subjects may lead to the activation of the adaptive immune system through the cross-reactivity against a von Willebrand factor type A domain protein (vWFA) that is produced by the microorganism and Ro-SSA self-antigens.
The authors showed Chinese and English script to Chinese-English bilinguals who were native Chinese speakers fluent in English and English learners of Chinese and showed a location difference of peak response in visual word form area (VWFA) between Chinese and an alphabetic characters such as English [20].
Tambien es menos activa la vwfa (Maisog et al., 2008).
"The main functional properties of the VWFA as identified in the sighted are present as well in the blind, are thus independent of the sensory modality of reading, and even more surprisingly do not require any visual experience," the researchers wrote.
"Hence, the VWFA should also be referred to as the tactile word form area, or more generally as the (metamodal) word form area."
If instead the brain is task oriented, you'd expect to find the peak of activity across the entire brain in the VWFA, right where it occurs in sighted readers, and that is exactly what the researchers found.
Further comparison of brain activity in blind and sighted readers showed that the patterns in the VWFA were indistinguishable between the two groups.
Support for this compensatory masquerade interpretation of changes in activation profile comes from several longitudinal studies of individuals with VWFA damage.
They found that the left VWFA was selectively tuned to orthographic representations of letters and a right lateralized occipital region is tuned to low-level visual representation of letters.
The response was significantly later in time than the left middle occipital gyrus, which peaked at approximately 115 ms, but not significantly different from the peak response in the left mid fusiform gyrus, which peaked at approximately 140 ms, at a location coincident with the fMRI-defined visual word form area (VWFA).