In a study of urban Boston children 8-11 years of age, childhood exposure to black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic pollution, was associated with lower verbal IQ
, nonverbal IQ, and visual memory abilities (Suglia et al.
Because the Shipley Verbal scale purports to measure linguistic intelligence, the Shipley Verbal IQ
scores were expected to show a strong and significant relationship with KAIT Crystallized IQ scores (convergent validity) and a weaker association with Fluid IQ scores (discriminant validity).
Growth curve analysis indicated that verbal IQ
and rapid naming predicted slopes for Word Identification and the 48 words taught during tutoring.
However, the analysis that compared participants' ratings of parental IQs showed that fathers were rated as having a higher overall and specifically numerical score than mothers, but that mothers were rated as having a higher verbal IQ
However, following a parent-initiated evaluation at the university demonstrating superior Verbal IQ
, but deficits in phonological and orthographic skills, he qualified for special education and was given an Individualized Education Plan (IEP).
T-tests revealed a statistically significant difference between the WISC-R and K-BIT for the Verbal IQ
and Vocabulary scale, t(44) = +4.97, p [less than] .001, but not for the Performance IQ and Matrices scale, t(44) = -1.66, nor for the Full Scale IQ and Composite score, t(44) = +1.44, ps [greater than] .05.
This involved testing of vocabulary and general knowledge for verbal IQ
and pattern-completion reasoning puzzles for nonverbal IQ.
MnW was more strongly associated with Performance IQ than Verbal IQ
I'm referring to using the verbal versus the nonverbal parts of a test, like the Verbal IQ
versus the Performance IQ or the Verbal Comprehension Index versus the Perceptual Reasoning Index.
Eleven of these subtests contribute to the Verbal and Performance IQ scores: Vocabulary, Comprehension, Similarities, Information, Arithmetic, and Digit Span contribute to the Verbal IQ
score, and Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Arrangement, Picture Completion, and Digit-Symbol Coding contribute to the Performance IQ score (Symbol Search and Letter-Number Sequencing are not included in these scores).
Hippocampal volume also correlated "very strongly" with performance and verbal IQ
and other indexes of intellectual functioning.
Among the children overall, there was no association between neonatal exposure to mercury from thimerosal and total IQ, while among boys, there was a significant positive association with performance IQ, and among girls, there was a significant negative association with verbal IQ