The FDA recently approved two vesicular monoamine transporter
2 (VMAT2) inhibitors, deutetrabenazine and valbenazine, for addressing symptoms of TD.
According to the company, INGREZZA (valbenazine) is a novel selective vesicular monoamine transporter
2 (VMAT2) inhibitor and is the first US FDA approved product indicated for the treatment of adults with tardive dyskinesia.
As a vesicular monoamine transporter
type 2 inhibitor, valbenazine works by regulating the amount of dopamine that is released into nerve cells by blocking a protein in the brain.
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase then converts 5-hydroxytryptophan into 5-HT, which is taken up into the synaptic vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter
Efange, "In vivo imaging of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and the vesicular monoamine transporter
," The FASEB Journal, vol.
PET studies also found lower densities of serotonin transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter
(VMAT2) across striatal subregions, midbrain, and hypothalamus of methamphetamine users [57, 58].
Previous rodent studies suggested that removing Omega-3 from the diet might reduce dopamine storage (the neurotransmitter associated with mood as well as working memory) and decrease density in the striatal vesicular monoamine transporter
type 2 (commonly referred to as VMAT2, a protein associated with decision making).
Although other scientists have put forth this idea in the past, Hamer became the first to identify the gene where God may reside--VMAT2, an acronym for vesicular monoamine transporter
* A molecule called [[sup.1]C] DTBZ (dihydroytetrabenzine), which helps measure the activity of the vesicular monoamine transporter
(VMAT)--a transport protein that helps transport dopamine and other signaling molecules into the vesicles in which they are stored in the signal-emitting (i.e., presynaptic) neuron;
Knockout of the vesicular monoamine transporter
2 gene results in neonatal death and supersensitivity to cocaine and amphetamine.
Here, for example, insult A targets the vesicular monoamine transporter
in which DA is stored; insult B attacks the enzyme converting tyrosine to DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and thus the DA metabolic pathway; insult C strikes the metabolism of DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) to HVA (bomovanillic acid); and insult D hits the DA transporter that takes DA back up from the synaptic cleft postrelease.