Warfarin is a frequently prescribed anticoagulant drug that works by inhibiting the vitamin K-dependent
activation of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X.
Co-existent pseudoxanthoma elasticum and vitamin K-dependent
coagulation factor deficiency: Compound heterozygosity for mutations in the GGCX gene.
One group of Belgian investigators has provided evidence that strongly suggests the mechanism by which warfarin causes vascular calcification is via inhibition of vitamin K-dependent
activation of matrix GLA 1, an enzyme which prevents calcification of vascular endothelial cells (BMC Nephrol.
proteins (VKDPs), which require post-translational modification to achieve biological activity, seem to contribute to thrombus formation, vascular calcification, and vessel stiffness.
In a seminal research paper generated by the Rotterdam Study, scientists and doctors determined that increased consumption of Vitamin K2 is correlated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (7), building upon numerous studies describing the inhibitory effect of Vitamin K-dependent
proteins on atherosclerosis.
Factor VII is a vitamin K-dependent
serine protease glycoprotein synthesized in the liver.
Factor VII, also known as Stable Factor and Proconvertin, is a vitamin K-dependent
glycoprotein that is produced in the liver.
12-16) According to 2014 research, 16 different vitamin K-dependent
Gla-proteins have been identified.
Warfarin use reduces vitamin K-dependent
coagulation factor activities due to reduced numbers of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues per molecule.
28) Another such protein is des-carboxy-prothrombin (PIVKA-II), the undercarboxylated forms of prothrombin, a vitamin K-dependent
clotting factor synthesized in the liver.
Second, it interferes in vitamin K reductase activity which leads to a decrease in the production of vitamin K-dependent
mineralization inhibitors in cartilage resulting in ectopic calcium deposits in epiphysis and nasal septum called epiphyseal stippling.
Other vitamin K-dependent
proteins inhibited by warfarin include proteins C and S, which are involved in the fibrinolytic system.